Шпаргалки! - Іноземні мови (КНЕУ)

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Marketing Concepts
The core marketing concepts are needs, wants, demands, products, exchange, transactions, markets.
The most basic concept underlying marketing is that of human needs. A human need is a state of felt deprivation(лишение). Human beings have many complex needs. They include basic physical needs for food, clothing, warmth, and safety; social needs for belonging and af-fection; and individual needs for knowledge and self-expression. These needs are a basic part of the human makeup.
When a need is not satisfied, a person will do one of two things -look for an object that will satisfy it or try to reduce the need. People in industrial societies may try to find or develop objects that will satisfy their desires. People in less-developed societies may try to reduce their desires and satisfy them with what is available.
A second basic concept in marketing is that of human wants — the form taken by human needs as they are shaped by culture and individual personality. Wants are described in terms of objects that will satisfy needs. As a society evolves (развивается), the wants of its members expand. So producers try to provide more want-satisfying products and services.
But people have almost unlimited wants and limited resources. Thus, they want to choose products that provide the most satisfaction for their money. When backed by buying power, wants become demands.
Human needs, wants, and demands suggest that there are products available to satisfy them. A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition (приобретение), use, or consumption and might satisfy a need or want. The concept of product is not limited to physical objects. Anything capable of satisfying a need can be called a product. In addition to goods and services, products include persons, places, organizations, activities, and ideas. If at times the term product does not seem to fit, we could substitute such terms as satisfier, resource, or offer. All describe something of value to someone.
Consumers view products as bundles (связки) of benefits and choose products that give them the best bundle for their money.
Exchange is the act of obtaining a desired object from someone by offering something in return. Exchange is only one of many ways people can obtain a desired object
Exchange is also the core concept of marketing. For an exchange to take place, several conditions must be satisfied. Of course, there must be at least two parties, and each must have something of value to the other. Each party must also want to deal with the other party; each must be free to accept or reject the other's offer. Finally, each party must be able to communicate and deliver.
These conditions simply make exchange possible. Whether exchange actually takes place depends on the parties' coming to an agreement. If they agree, we must conclude that the act of exchange has left both of them better off (or at least not worse off): After all, each was free to re-ject or accept the offer. In this sense, just as production creates value, exchange creates value. It gives people more consumption possibilities.
Whereas (Принимая во внимание, что) exchange is the core concept of marketing, a transaction is marketing's unit of measurement. A transaction consists of a trade of values between two parties. In a transaction, we must be able to say that A gives X to B and gets Y in return. Not all transactions involve money. In a barter transaction, you might trade your old refrigerator in return for a neighbor's secondhand television set. A barter transaction can also involve services as well as goods—for example, when a lawyer writes a will for a doctor in return for a medical exam. A transaction involves at least two things of value, conditions that are agreed upon, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement.
In the broadest sense, the marketer tries to bring about a response to some offer. And the response may be more than simply «buying» or «trading» goods and services in the narrow sense. Marketing consists of actions taken to obtain a desired response from a target audience toward some product, service, idea, or other object.
The concept of transactions leads to the concept of a market. A market is the set of actual and potential buyers of a product.
As the number of persons and transactions increases in a society, the number of merchants and marketplaces also increases. In advanced societies, markets need not be physical locations where buyers and sellers interact.
A market can grow up around a product, a service, or anything else of value. For example, a labor market consists of people who are willing to offer their work in return for wages or products. The money market is another important market that emerges to meet the needs of people so that they can borrow, lend, save, and protect money. The donor market has emerged to meet the financial needs of nonprofit organizations.
Marketing means working with markets to bring about exchanges for the purpose of satisfying human needs and wants. Thus, we return to our definition of marketing as a process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want by creating and exchanging products and value with others.
Exchange processes involve work. Sellers must search for buyers, identify their needs, design good products, promote them, store and deliver them, and set prices for them. Such activities as product development, research, communication, distribution, pricing, and service are core marketing activities.
Consumers do «marketing» when they search for the goods they need at prices they can afford. Company purchasing agents do «marketing» when they track down sellers and bargain for good terms. A seller's market is one in which sellers have more power and buyers must be the more active «marketers.» In a buyer's market, buyers have more power and sellers have to be more active «marketers.»
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